Jewish Presence in Post-Exile Israel Endures
Despite the Roman conquest and ethnic cleansing policies, small Jewish communities remained in the land of Israel (which the Romans had renamed Palaestina). These communities ensured an unbroken presence there until Jews began returning en masse from exile in the 19th Century. The number of Jews fluctuated, from an estimated 300 000 prior to the Crusades to sometimes just a few thousand. But the Jewish connection with the land was never broken.
Attachment: The Land of Israel and the Jewish People throughout History